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Executive Summary: Science and Success, Second Edition Print

Sex Education and Other Programs That Work to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, HIV & Sexually Transmitted Infections

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Until recently, teen pregnancy and birth rates had declined in the United States. Despite these declines, US teen birth and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates remain among the highest in the industrialized world. Given the need to focus limited prevention resources on effective programs, Advocates for Youth undertook exhaustive reviews of existing research to compile a list of those programs proven effective by rigorous evaluation. Nineteen programs appeared in Science and Success when it was first published in 2003; seven additional programs are included in Science and Success, Second Edition.

Criteria for Inclusion—The programs included in this document all had evaluations that:

  • Were published in peer-reviewed journals (a proxy for the quality of the evaluation design and analysis);
  • Used an experimental or quasi-experimental evaluation design, with treatment and control / comparison conditions;
  • Included at least 100 young people in treatment and control / comparison groups.

Further, the evaluations either:

  • Continued to collect data from both groups at three months or later after intervention

And

  • Demonstrated that the program led to at least two positive behavior changes among program youth, relative to controls:
    • Postponement or delay of sexual initiation;
    • Reduction in the frequency of sexual intercourse;
    • Reduction in the number of sexual partners / increase in monogamy;
    • Increase in the use, or consistency of use, of effective methods of contraception and/or condoms;
    • Reduction in the incidence of unprotected sex.

Or:

  • Showed effectiveness in reducing rates of pregnancy, STIs, or HIV in intervention youth, relative to controls.

Program Effects—Twenty-six programs met the criteria described above: these 26 programs were able to affect the behaviors and/or sexual health outcomes of youth exposed to the program.

Risk Avoidance Through Abstinence—Fourteen programs demonstrated a statistically significant delay in the timing of first sex among program youth, relative to comparison / control youth. One of these programs is an intervention for elementary school children and their parents. The other 13 programs target middle and high school youth and all include information about both abstinence and contraception, among other topics and/or services. (See Table A)

Risk Reduction for Sexually Active Youth—Many of the programs also demonstrated reductions in other sexual risk-taking behaviors among participants relative to comparison / control youth. (See Table A)

  • 14 programs helped sexually active youth to increase their use of condoms.
  • 9 programs demonstrated success at increasing use of contraception other than condoms.
  • 13 programs showed reductions in the number of sex partners and/or increased monogamy among program participants.
  • 7 programs assisted sexually active youth to reduce the frequency of sexual intercourse.
  • 10 programs helped sexually active youth to reduce the incidence of unprotected sex.

Reduced Rates of Teenage Pregnancy or Sexually Transmitted Infections—Thirteen programs showed statistically significant declines in teen pregnancy, HIV or other STIs. Nine demonstrated a statistically significant impact on teenage pregnancy among program participants and four, a reduced trend in STIs among participants when measured against comparison / control youth.(See Table A)

Increased Receipt of Health Care or Increased Compliance with Treatment Protocols—Six programs achieved improvements in youth’s receipt of health care and//or compliance with treatment protocols, or other actions that improved their health. (See Table A)

Program Content—Of the 26 effective programs described here, 23 included information about abstinence and contraception within the context of sexual health education. Of the three that did not include sexual health education, two were early childhood interventions and one was a service-learning program.

I. School Based Programs

1. AIDS Prevention for Adolescents in School
This HIV/STI prevention curriculum comprises six sessions, delivered on consecutive days, and includes experiential activities to build skills in refusal, risk assessment, and risk reduction. It is recommended for use with African American, Hispanic, white, and Asian high school students in urban settings. Evaluation found that this program assisted sexually experienced participants to increase monogamy, reduce the number of their drug-using sexual partners, and increase condom use. The program had no significant effect on delaying the initiation of sex. Evaluation found the program to be associated with a favorable trend in the incidence of STIs among participants, relative to controls.[1]

For More Information or to Order, Contact

  • Sociometrics, Program Archive on Sexuality, Health & Adolescence: Phone, 1.800.846.3475; Fax, 1.650.949.3299; E-mail, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ; Web, http://www.socio.com

2. Get Real about AIDS
This HIV risk reduction curriculum comprises 15 sessions delivered over consecutive days. It includes experiential activities to build skills in refusal, communication, and condom use. Other components include activities, such as public service announcements, to reach more youth and reinforce educational messages. It is recommended for use with sexually active, white and Hispanic, urban, suburban, and rural, high school students. Evaluation found that the program assisted sexually active participants to reduce the number of their sexual partners, increase condom use, and increase condom purchase. The program did not affect the timing of sexual initiation. It did not reduce the frequency of sex among sexually active youth nor their use of drugs and alcohol prior to having sex.[2]

For More Information or to Order, Contact

  • Sociometrics, Program Archive on Sexuality, Health & Adolescence: Phone, 1.800.846.3475; Fax, 1.650.949.3299; E-mail, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ; Web, http://www.socio.com

3. Postponing Sexual Involvement (Augmenting a Five-Session Human Sexuality Curriculum)
This five-session, peer-led curriculum is designed to augment a five-session human sexuality curriculum led by health professionals, who also refer sexually active youth for nearby reproductive health care. It is recommended for use with eighth grade, black urban youth, especially those at socioeconomic disadvantage. Evaluation showed delayed initiation of sexual intercourse and, among sexually experienced participants, reduced frequency of sex and increased use of contraception. When replicated without fidelity (including omission of the five-session human sexuality curriculum), the program led to no changes in sexual behavior among participants relative to comparison youth.[3,4,5]

For More Information or to Order Postponing Sexual Involvement to Augment Human Sexuality Education, Contact

  • Marian Apomah, Coordinator, Jane Fonda Center; Emory Unversity School of Medicine: Building A Briarcliff Campus, 1256 Briarcliff Road, Atlanta, GA, 30306; Phone, 404.712.4710; Fax, 404.712.8739

4. Postponing Sexual Involvement, Human Sexuality & Health Screening
This pregnancy prevention program combines the five-session, peer-led Postponing Sexual Involvement curriculum with elements drawn from the Self Center (described below), and includes: three classroom sessions on reproductive health, delivered to seventh graders by health professionals and, again the next year, to eighth graders; group discussions; and a full-time health professional from outside the school and working in the school. Other components of the program include individual health risk screening and an eighth grade assembly and contest. The program is recommended for seventh and eighth grade, urban, African American, economically disadvantaged females. Evaluation found that the program assisted female participants to delay initiation of sexual intercourse and increased the use of contraception by sexually active female participants. Evaluation found no statistically significant impact on the sexual behaviors of male participants.[6]

For More Information or to Order, Contact

  • Renee R. Jenkins, MD, Dept. of Pediatrics and Child Health, Howard University Hospital: 2041 Georgia Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20060
  • For Postponing Sexual Involvement— Marian Apomah, Coordinator, Jane Fonda Center; Emory Unversity School of Medicine: Building A Briarcliff Campus, 1256 Briarcliff Road, Atlanta, GA, 30306; Phone, 404.712.4710; Fax, 404.712.8739
  • For the Self Center— Sociometrics, Program Archive on Sexuality, Health & Adolescence: Phone, 1.800.846.3475; Fax, 1.650.949.3299; E-mail, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ; Web, http://www.socio.com

5. Reach for Health Community Youth Service
This program combines a health promotion curriculum (40 lessons per year in each of two years), including sexual health information, with three hours per week of community service. Activities help students reflect on and learn from their community experience. The program is recommended for use with seventh and eighth grade, urban, black, and Hispanic youth, especially those who are economically disadvantaged. Evaluation showed delayed initiation of sexual intercourse, an effect that continued even through 10th grade. The program also assisted sexually active participants in reducing the frequency of sex and increasing use of condoms and contraception.[7]

For More Information or to order, Contact

  • Sociometrics, Program Archive on Sexuality, Health & Adolescence: Phone, 1.800.846.3475; Fax, 1.650.949.3299; E-mail, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ; Web, http://www.socio.com

6. Reducing the Risk (RTR)
Reducing the Risk is a sex education curriculum, including information on abstinence and contraception. In 16, 45-minute sessions, it offers experiential activities to build skills in refusal, negotiation, and communication, including that between parents and their children. Designed for use with high school students, especially those in grades nine and 10, it is recommended for use with sexually inexperienced, urban, suburban, and rural youth—white, Latino, Asian, and black. Evaluation showed that it was more effective with lower risk, than with higher risk, youth. Evaluations—of the original program and of a replication of the program—each found: increased parent-child communication about abstinence and contraception; delayed initiation of sexual intercourse; and reduced incidence of unprotected sex / increased use of contraception among participants as well.[8,9]

For More Information or to Order, Contact

  • Sociometrics, Program Archive on Sexuality, Health & Adolescence: Phone, 1.800.846.3475; Fax, 1.650.949.3299; E-mail, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ; Web, http://www.socio.com
  • ETR Associates: Phone, 1.800.321.4407; Fax, 1.800.435.8433; Web, http://www.etr.org/

7. Safer Choices
This is an HIV/STI and teen pregnancy prevention curriculum, given in 20 sessions, evenly divided over two years and designed for use with grades nine through 12. The program includes experiential activities to: build skills in communication; delay the initiation of sex; and promote condom use by sexually active participants. Other elements include a school health protection council, a peer team or club to host school-wide activities, educational activities for parents, and HIV-positive speakers. The program is recommended for use with Hispanic, white, African American, and Asian, urban and suburban high school students. A new evaluation showed that Safer Choices effectively assisted sexually inexperienced youth, especially Hispanics, to delay the initiation of sexual intercourse. It assisted sexually experienced youth to reduce the number of new sex partners, reduce the incidence of unprotected sex, and increase use of condoms and other contraception. Earlier evaluation showed that Safer Choices assisted sexually experienced youth to increase condom and contraceptive use. Earlier evaluation also showed that hearing an HIV-positive speaker was associated with participants' greater likelihood of receiving HIV testing, relative to control youth.[11,12,13,14]

For More Information or to Order, Contact

  • Sociometrics, Program Archive on Sexuality, Health & Adolescence: Phone, 1.800.846.3475; Fax, 1.650.949.3299; E-mail, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ; Web, http://www.socio.com
  • ETR Associates: Phone, 1.800.321.4407; Fax, 1.800.435.8433; Web, http://www.etr.org/

8. School/Community Program for Sexual Risk Reduction among Teens
This intensive, school-based intervention integrates sex education into a broad spectrum of courses throughout public education (kindergarten through 12th grade). It includes teacher training, peer education, school-based health clinic services (including contraceptive provision), referral and transportation to community-based reproductive health care, workshops to develop the role modeling skills of parents and community leaders, and media coverage of a spectrum of health topics. The program is recommended for use with black and white rural students (kindergarten through 12th grade). Evaluation found that this program reduced teen pregnancy rates in the participating community relative to comparison counties. Replication in two counties in another state found that it assisted youth in one county to delay the initiation of sexual intercourse and assisted males in another county to increase their use of condoms, relative to youth in comparison counties.[15,16,17]

For More Information or to Order, Contact

  • Sociometrics, Program Archive on Sexuality, Health & Adolescence: Phone, 1.800.846.3475; Fax, 1.650.949.3299; E-mail, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ; Web, http://www.socio.com

9. Seattle Social Development Project
This is a school-based program to provide developmentally appropriate, social competence training to elementary school children. Components include educator training each year and voluntary parenting classes on encouraging children's developmentally appropriate social skills. The program is recommended for use with urban, socio-economically disadvantaged children—white, Asian, and Native American, but especially African American—in grades one through six. Evaluation when study participants were age 18, and again when they reached 21, found that the program assisted youth who participated in the program as children to significantly delay the initiation of sexual intercourse and, among sexually experienced youth, to reduce the number of sexual partners and increase condom use, relative to comparison youth. By age 21, the program also showed reduced rates of teenage pregnancy and birth in participants, relative to comparison youth. Other long-term positive outcomes for participating youth, relative to comparisons, included increased academic achievement and reduced incidence of delinquency, violence, school misbehavior, and heavy drinking.[18,19]

For More Information, Contact

  • Social Development Research Group, University of Washington: 9725 Third Avenue NE, Suite 401, Seattle, Washington, 98115

    This program is not available for purchase

10. Self-Center (School-Linked Reproductive Health Center)
This model of the school-linked health center (SLHC) offers free reproductive and contraceptive health care to participating youth from nearby junior and senior high schools. SLHC staff works daily in participating schools, providing sex education lessons once or twice a year in each homeroom and offering daily individual and group counseling in the school health suite. Staff is also available daily in the SLHC to provide students with education and counseling and, for those youth registered with the clinic, reproductive and sexual health care. The program is recommended for use with urban, black, and economically disadvantaged, junior and senior high school students. Evaluation found that the program assisted participants to delay the initiation of sexual intercourse and to use reproductive health services prior to initiating sex. It also assisted sexually active participants to reduce the incidence of unprotected sex and increase their use of contraception. The program resulted in a reduction in teen pregnancy rates among participants, relative to comparison youth.[20,21]

For More Information or to order, Contact

  • Sociometrics, Program Archive on Sexuality, Health & Adolescence: Phone, 1.800.846.3475; Fax, 1.650.949.3299; E-mail, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ; Web, http://www.socio.com

11. Teen Outreach Project (TOP)
This school-based, teen pregnancy and dropout prevention program involves weekly school classes, lasting one hour, that integrate the developmental tasks of adolescence with lessons learned from community service (lasting at least 30 minutes each week). The curriculum focuses on values, human growth and development, relationships, dealing with family stress, and issues related to the social and emotional transition from adolescence to adulthood. The program is recommended for high school youth at risk of teen pregnancy, academic problems, and school dropout, and is most effective with ethnic minority youth, adolescent mothers, and students with academic difficulties, including previous school suspension. Evaluation of the original program and evaluations of two replications all found that the program reduced rates of pregnancy, school suspension, and class failure among participants, relative to control/comparison youth.[22,23,24]

For More Information or to Order, Contact

  • Wyman Teen Outreach Program: 600 Kiwanis Drive, Eureka, MO 63025; Phone, 636-549-1236;
    E-mail, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ;
    Web, http://www.wymancenter.org.

Section II. Community-Based Programs

12. Abecedarian Project
This full-time educational program consists of high quality childcare from infancy through age five, including individualized games that focus on social, emotional, and cognitive development, with a particular emphasis on language. During the early elementary school years, the program works to involve parents in their children's education, using a Home School Resource Teacher to serve as a liaison between school and families. The program is recommended for use with healthy, African American infants from families that meet federal poverty guidelines. Evaluation found long-term impacts, including a reduced number of adolescent births and delayed first births as well as increased rates of skilled employment and college education and reduced rates of marijuana use among former participants, relative to controls.[25]

For More Information, Contact

  • FPG Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill: http://www.fpg.unc.edu/~abc/
    This program is not available for purchase.

13. Adolescents Living Safely: AIDS Awareness, Attitudes & Actions
This HIV prevention program is designed to augment traditional services available at shelters for runaway youth. The program involves 30 discussion sessions for small groups, each lasting one-and-a-half to two hours and including experiential activities to build cognitive and coping skills. Intensive training of shelter staff and access to health care, including mental health services, are also important components of the program. It is recommended for use with black and Hispanic runaway youth, ages 11 through 18, living in city shelters. Evaluation found that the program assisted youth to reduce the frequency of sex and numbers of sexual partners, and to increase condom use. The program did not affect the timing of sexual initiation.[26]

For More Information or to Order, Contact

  • Sociometrics, Program Archive on Sexuality, Health & Adolescence: Phone, 1.800.846.3475; Fax, 1.650.949.3299; E-mail, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ; Web, http://www.socio.com.

14. Be Proud! Be Responsible! A Safer Sex Curriculum
This HIV prevention curriculum comprises six sessions, each lasting 50 minutes, and includes experiential activities to build skills in negotiation, refusal, and condom use. It is recommended for use with urban, black, male youth, ages 13 through 18. Evaluation found that it assisted young men to reduce their frequency of sex, reduce the number of their sexual partners (especially female partners who were also involved with other men), increase condom use, and reduce the incidence of heterosexual anal intercourse.[27,28]

For More Information or to Order, Contact

15. Becoming a Responsible Teen
This HIV prevention, sex education, and skills training curriculum comprises eight one-and-a-half- to two-hour sessions. It includes experiential activities to build skills in assertion, refusal, problem solving, risk recognition, and condom use and is designed for use in single-sex groups, each facilitated by both a male and a female leader. It is recommended for use with African American youth, ages 14 through 18. Evaluation found the program assisted participants to delay the initiation of sex and assisted sexually active participants to reduce the frequency of sex, decrease the incidence of unprotected sex (including anal sex), and increase condom use.[29]

For More Information or to Order, Contact

16. California’s Adolescent Sibling Pregnancy Prevention Project
This teen pregnancy prevention program provides individualized case management and care as well as sex education, including information on abstinence and contraception, to the adolescent siblings of pregnant and parenting teens. The program is recommended for economically disadvantaged, Hispanic youth, ages 11 to 17. Evaluation found that the program assisted female youth to delay the initiation of sexual intercourse and assisted male youth to increase the consistent use of contraception. The program resulted in reductions in teen pregnancy rates among program youth, relative to comparison youth.[30]

For More Information, Contact

  • California Department of Health Services, Maternal & Child Health Branch: 714 P Street, Room 750, Sacramento, CA 95814; Phone: 1.866. 241.0395

    This program is not available for purchase.

17. Children’s Aid Society—Carrera Program
This multi-component youth development program provides daily after-school activities—including a job club and career exploration, academic tutoring and assistance, sex education that includes information about abstinence and contraception, arts workshops, and individual sports activities. A summer program offers enrichment activities, employment assistance, and tutoring. The program provides year-round, comprehensive health care, including primary, mental, dental, and reproductive health services. The program involves youth's families and provides interpersonal skills development and access to a wide range of social services. The program is recommended for use with urban, black and Hispanic, socio-economically disadvantaged youth, ages 13 through 15. Evaluation found that the program assisted female participants to delay the initiation of sexual intercourse and resist sexual pressure. It also assisted sexually experienced female participants to increase their use of dual methods of contraception. The program assisted both male and female participants to increase their receipt of health care. Otherwise, evaluation showed no positive, significant behavioral changes in participating males relative to comparison males. The program resulted in reduced rates of teen pregnancy among participants, relative to comparison youth.[31]

For More Information, Contact

18. Community Level HIV Prevention Intervention for Adolescents in Low-Income Developments
This HIV prevention program includes training in refusal, condom negotiation, communication, and condom use for adolescents in low-income housing developments. Workshops are followed by a multi-component community intervention including follow-up sessions; a Teen Health Project Leadership Council; media projects, social events, talent shows, musical performances, and festivals; and HIV/AIDS workshops for parents. The program is recommended for low-income adolescents living in housing projects, urban youth, and multi-ethnic youth ages 12-17. Evaluation found that the program assisted participants to delay initiation of sex and assisted sexually active participants to increase condom use.[32]

For More Information, Contact

19. ¡Cuidate!
This HIV prevention curriculum is tailored for use with Latino adolescents. Its goals are to 1) influence attitudes, beliefs, and self-efficacy regarding HIV risk reduction, especially abstinence and condom use; 2) highlight cultural values that support safer sex practices; 3) reframe cultural values that might be perceived as barriers to safer sex; and 4) emphasize how cultural values influence attitudes and beliefs in ways that affect sexual risk behaviors. It consists of six one-hour modules delivered over consecutive days. The program is recommended for urban Latino youth ages 13-18. Evaluation found that the program assisted participants to reduce frequency of sex, reduce number of sex partners, reduce incidence of unprotected sex, and increase condom use.[33,34]

For More Information, Contact

  • Antonia M. Villarruel at the University of Michigan School of Nursing, 400 N. Ingalls, Suite 4320, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-0482. Phone: 734-615-9696. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

20. Making Proud Choices!
This HIV prevention curriculum emphasizes safer sex and includes information about both abstinence and condoms. It comprises eight, culturally appropriate sessions, each lasting 60 minutes and includes experiential activities to build skills in delaying the initiation of sex, communicating with partners, and among sexually active youth, using condoms. It is recommended for use with urban, African American youth, ages 11 through 13. Evaluation found the program assisted participants to delay initiation of sex and assisted sexually active participants to reduce the frequency of sex, reduce the incidence of unprotected sex, and increase condom use.[35]

For More Information or to Order, Contact

21. Poder Latino: A Community AIDS Prevention Program for Inner-City Latino Youth
This community-wide, 18-month program provides peer education workshops on HIV awareness and prevention and peer-led group discussions in various community settings. Peer educators also lead efforts to make condoms available via door-to-door and street canvassing and make presentations at major community events. Radio and television public service announcements, posters in local businesses and public transit, and a newsletter augment the work of the peer educators. The program is designed for use in urban, Latino communities in order to reach the community’s adolescents ages 14 through 19. Evaluation showed that the program assisted the community's male teens to delay the initiation of sexual intercourse and assisted the community's sexually active female teens to reduce the number of their sexual partners. The program did not affect sexually active participants' frequency of sex.[36,37]

For More Information or to Order, Contact

  • Sociometrics, Program Archive on Sexuality, Health & Adolescence: Phone, 1.800.846.3475; Fax, 1.650.949.3299; E-mail, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ; Web, http://www.socio.com

Section III. Clinic-Based Programs

22. HIV Risk Reduction for African American & Latina Adolescent Women
This skills-based HIV risk reduction intervention is designed for use in health clinics. Intended for use with African American and Latina young women, ages up to 19, who are at high risk of HIV because they have prior STI infections, the program provides young clients with confidential and free family planning services, teaches them how to use condoms, and provides skill building in relation to partner negotiation and condom use. Evaluation found that young women who participated in the intervention had a lower incidence of STIs versus comparisons; they also reduced the number of their sexual partners and their incidence of unprotected sex.[38]

For More Information or to Order, Contact

  • Loretta Sweet Jemmott, PhD, FAAN, RN, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Room 239 Fagin Hall, 418 Curie Blvd., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6096; Phone, 215.898.8287; E-mail, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

There is little replication information available for this program.

23. Project SAFE (Sexual Awareness for Everyone)
This gender- and culture-specific behavioral intervention consists of three sessions, each lasting three to four hours. Designed specifically for young African American and Latina women ages 15 through 24, it actively involves participants in lively and open discussion and games, videos, role plays, and behavior modeling. Discussions cover abstinence, mutual monogamy, correct and consistent condom use, compliance with STI treatment protocols, and reducing the number of one’s sex partners. Each participant is encouraged to identify realistic risk reduction strategies that she can use in the context of her own life and values. Evaluation found that participants increased their adherence to monogamy, reduced the number of their sexual partners and the incidence of unprotected sex, reduced the incidence of STIs, and increased their compliance with STI treatment protocols.[39,40,41,42]

For More Information or to Order, Contact

  • Sociometrics, Program Archive on Sexuality, Health & Adolescence: Phone, 1.800.846.3475; Fax, 1.650.949.3299; E-mail, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ; Web, http://www.socio.com.

24. SiHLE
SiHLE is an HIV prevention program especially designed for sexually active African American teenage women. Consisting of four sessions, each lasting four hours, the program is facilitated by trained, African American females—one health educator and two peer educators. Sihle means beautiful or strong young woman, and the program encourages participants to develop ethnic and gender pride as well as self-confidence. It also builds their skills and awareness for sexual risk reduction. Evaluation found increased condom use and reduced number of new sex partners as well as reduced incidence of: unprotected sex; STIs, and pregnancy.[43]

For More Information or to order, Contact

  • Sociometrics, Program Archive on Sexuality, Health & Adolescence: Phone, 1.800.846.3475; Fax, 1.650.949.3299; E-mail, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ; Web, http://www.socio.com.

25. Tailoring Family Planning Services to the Special Needs of Adolescents
This effective, clinic-based, pregnancy prevention protocol is designed for use in family planning and other reproductive and sexual health clinics. It is particularly designed to meet the special needs of youth under the age of 18. As such, it provides education geared to the adolescent’s cognitive development and offers reassurance of confidentiality, extra time for counseling, information and reassurance regarding medical exams, and carefully timed medical services. Evaluation found that teens that had these specially tailored services were significantly more likely than other teens to increase their use of effective contraception and had a decreased pregnancy rate.[44]

For More Information or to Order, Contact

  • Sociometrics, Program Archive on Sexuality, Health & Adolescence: Phone, 1.800.846.3475; Fax, 1.650.949.3299; E-mail, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ; Web, http://www.socio.com.

26. TLC: Together Learning Choices
This curriculum is aimed at HIV positive youth in a clinic setting. It consists of 16 sessions of a small group intervention led by trained facilitators. Participants learn skills in solving problems, setting goals, communicating effectively, being assertive, and negotiating safer sex practices. They also improve their self-awareness regarding their feelings, thoughts, and beliefs, especially related to health promotion and positive social interactions. The program can be used with urban, African American or Latino, HIV-positive youth ages 13 through twenty-four. Evaluation found that the program assisted participants to reduce numbers of sexual partners, reduce incidence of unprotected sex, increase positive lifestyle changes (females only), and increase positive coping actions.[45,46]

For More Information, Contact

For the full document - Science & Success, Second Edition: Sex Education and Other Programs That Work to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, HIV & Sexually Transmitted Infections, please visit www.advocatesforyouth.org/programsthatwork/toc.htm.

Written by Sue Alford, MLS
Advocates for Youth © 2008

References

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  20. Zabin LS, Hirsch MB, Smith EA et al. Evaluation of a pregnancy prevention program for urban teenagers. Family Planning Perspectives 1986; 18:119-126.
  21. Frost JJ, Forrest JD. Understanding the impact of effective teenage pregnancy prevention programs. Family Planning Perspectives 1995; 27:188-195.
  22. Allen JP, Philliber S, Hoggson N. School-based prevention of teen-age pregnancy and school dropout: process evaluation of the national replication of the Teen Outreach Program. American Journal of Community Psychology 1990; 18:505-523.
  23. Allen JP, Philliber S, Herrling S et al. Preventing teen pregnancy and academic failure: experimental evaluation of a developmentally-based approach. Child Development 1997; 64:729-742.
  24. Allen JP, Philliber S. Who benefits most from a broadly targeted prevention program? Differential efficacy across populations in the Teen Outreach Program. Journal of Community Psychology 2001; 29:637-655.
  25. Campbell FA, Ramey CT, Pungello E et al. Early childhood education: young adult outcomes from the Abecedarian Project. Applied Developmental Science 2002; 6(1):42-57.
  26. Rotheram-Borus MJ, Koopman C, Haignere C et al. Reducing HIV sexual risk behaviors among runaway adolescents. JAMA 1991; 266:1237-1241.
  27. Jemmott JB, Jemmott LS, Fong GT. Reductions in HIV risk-associated sexual behaviors among black male adolescents: effects of an AIDS prevention intervention. American Journal of Public Health 1992; 82:372-377.
  28. ETR Associates. Be Proud! Be Responsible! Programs that Work. http://www.etr.org/recapp/programs/proud.htm.
  29. St. Lawrence JS, Brasfield TL, Jefferson KW et al. Cognitive-behavioral intervention to reduce African American adolescents' risk for HIV infection. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1995; 63:221-237
  30. East P, Kiernan E, Chavez G. An evaluation of California's Adolescent Sibling Pregnancy Prevention Program. Perspectives on Sexual & Reproductive Health 2003; 35:62-70.
  31. Philliber S, Williams Kaye J, Herrling S et al. Preventing pregnancy and improving health care access among teenagers: an evaluation of the Children's Aid Society—Carrera Program. Perspectives on Sexual & Reproductive Health 2002; 34:244-251.
  32. Sikkema KJ, Anderson ES, Kelly JA et al. Outcomes of a randomized, controlled community-level HIV prevention intervention for adolescents in low-income housing developments. AIDS 2005; 19:1509-1516.
  33. Villarruel AN, Jemmott JB, Jemmott LS. A randomized controlled trial testing an HIV prevention intervention for Latino youth. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 1006; 160:772-777.
  34. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. ¡Cuidate! A Culturally-based Program to Reduce HIV Sexual Risk Behavior among Latino Youth; http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/prev_prog/rep/packages/!cuidate!.htm; accessed 11/16/2007.
  35. Jemmott JB, Jemmott LS, Fong GT. Abstinence and safer sex HIV risk-reduction interventions for African American adolescents: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1998; 279:1529-1536.
  36. Sellers DE, McGraw SA, McKinlay JB. Does the promotion and distribution of condoms increase teen sexual activity? Evidence from an HIV prevention program for Latino youth. American Journal of Public Health 1994; 84:1952-1959.
  37. Smith KW, McGraw SA, Crawford SL et al. HIV risk among Latino adolescents in two New England cities. American Journal of Public Health 1993; 83:1395-1399.
  38. Jemmott JB, Jemmott LS, Braverman PK et al. HIV/STD risk reduction interventions for African American and Latino adolescent girls at an adolescent medicine clinic. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2005; 159:440-449.
  39. Shain RN, Piper JM, Newton ER et al. A randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention to prevent sexually transmitted diseases among minority women. New England Journal of Medicine 1999; 340(2):93-100.
  40. Shain RN, Piper JM, Holden AEC et al. Prevention of gonorrhea and chlamydia through behavioral intervention: results of a two-year controlled randomized trial in minority women. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2004; 31(7):401-408.
  41. Shain RN, Perdue ST, Piper JM et al. Behaviors changed by intervention are associated with reduced STD recurrence: the importance of context in measurement. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2002; 29:520-529.
  42. Korte JE, Shain RN, Holden AEC et al. Reduction in sexual risk behaviors and infection rates among African Americans and Mexican Americans. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2004; 31:166-173.
  43. DiClemente RJ, Wingood GM, Harrington KF et al. Efficacy of an HIV prevention intervention for African American adolescent girls: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 292:171-179.
  44. Winter L, Breckenmaker LC. Tailoring family planning services to the special needs of adolescents. Family Planning Perspectives 1991; 23:24-30.
  45. Rotheram-Borus MJ, Lee MB, Murphy DA et al. Efficacy of a preventive intervention for youths living with HIV. American Journal of Public Health 2001; 91:400-405.
  46. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. TLC: Together Learning Choices: A Small Group Level Intervention with Young People Living with HIV/AIDS; http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/prev_prog/rep/packages/TLC.htm; accessed 11/16/2007.
This publication is part of Science and Success, Programs that Work series.
 
Working with GLBTQ Youth Print

Volume 14, No. 4, June 2002

This Transitions is also available in [PDF] format.

Table of Contents

This issue of Transitions offers factual information about the lives of and risks to gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (GLTBQ) youth, as well as personal observations of young activists in the field. It provides criteria for successfully serving GLBTQ youth, GLBTQ youth of color, HIV-positive youth, transgender youth, and young people who question their sexual orientation. It addresses the chilling effect of abstinence-only-until-marriage education and the need of lesbian and bisexual young women for access to emergency contraception. Throughout the issue, GLBTQ youth give glimpses of their lives, perceptions, personalities, and experiences.

Advocates for Youth's Online Interventions by Youth for Youth

  • YouthResource (http://www.youthresource.com/) is created by and for GLBTQ youth ages 13 to 24 and takes a holistic approach to sexual health by offering support, community, resources, and peer-to-peer education about issues of concern to GLBTQ youth.
  • Ambiente Joven (http://www.ambientejoven.org/) is a Web site for Latino/Latina YMSM and GLBTQ youth and provides information on safer sex, HIV/AIDS, and mental and sexual health through peer educators based in the United States and Latin America.
  • MySistahs (http://www.mysistahs.org) is created by and for young women of color and provides holistic sexual health information.

Resources

Films by Teens for Teens

Scenarios USA is a program for teenagers to get them thinking about their choices and decisions around important issues that affect their lives, such as HIV/AIDS, unwanted pregnancy and violence. Teens, ages 12 to 22, address these issues by writing stories for the Scenarios contest, What's the Real Deal.

Winners get to make their stories into short films in their hometown, working with a professional filmmaker and crew. The finished products are high-quality short films that educators can use to spark discussion on important issues. The films have been shown on MTV, PBS and NBC affiliates, Oxygen, at film festivals and on the Internet as well as on ABC's World News Tonight and NPR's On the Media.

Scenarios USA introduces a new film in the series. Lipstick is a story about a group of teenage best friends, the courage of one girl to express who she is, and the struggle of another to accept and understand difference. Together, the four friends confront fears and prejudice, and friendship prevails. Lipstick deals forthrightly and understandingly with sexual identity, self-expression, and acceptance.

Lipstick is available for purchase beginning mid-June 2002 for $15.00. To order, contact Scenarios USA, 110 West 18th Street, 6th Floor, New York, NY 10011 or phone 646.230.7677.


Transitions (ISSN 1097-1254) © 2002, is a quarterly publication of Advocates for Youth—Helping young people make safe and responsible decisions about sex. For permission to reprint, contact Transitions' editor at 202.419.3420.

Editor: Sue Alford

This publication is part of Transitions series. 

 
Tips and Strategies for Assessing Youth Programs and Agencies Print

To ensure a safe environment for GLBTQ youth, the first step is to assess the internal climate of your organization. Assessment will show whether the organization offers a safe space for all participants and especially for GLBTQ youth.

Do not evade any of the questions by asserting that there are no GLBTQ youth in your program. Answer all questions and assume that at least five to 10 percent of the youth in your program are GLBTQ.

If you can honestly answer yes to all the questions below, your agency is a welcoming and safe space for GLBTQ and straight youth. Congratulations! Any "no" answers indicate areas for improvement. Four or more "no" answers indicate a serious need for your organization to commit to serving all the young people in its programs and for staff and board to take steps to ensure that the agency's mission, vision, planning, and operations create and maintain a safe space** for GLBTQ youth.

For assistance in taking steps to assure safe space, see the rest of the guidelines and/or consult the organizations listed in Creating Safe Space for GLBTQ Youth: A Toolkit.

  1. Do the GLBTQ youth, staff, and volunteers in your organization or program know that you care about them—individually and as whole people?
  2. Have you created a safe space where all youth can openly ask questions about and discuss issues like sexual health, body image, relationships, and gender?
  3. Do you know the interests, abilities, hobbies, and skills of each young person in your program?
  4. Do you offer any information about local GLBTQ communities and resources? Do you refer youth to these resources?
  5. If you offer information about safer sex, HIV prevention, and/or pregnancy prevention, is it also GLBTQ friendly? Is the information appropriate for all the program's youth? Is it culturally appropriate? How do you know?
  6. Do you ask youth to fill out evaluation forms that measure the quality of your services—qualities such as youth-friendliness, cultural appropriateness, and safety?
  7. Do you employ youth as staff? Do any of these youth self-identify as GLBTQ?
  8. Is staff of similar background and culture(s) to the youth served by the program? Does any staff self-identify as GLBTQ?
  9. Do you involve youth in planning and evaluating the program? Do you involve GLBTQ youth?
  10. Have you intentionally created a youth-friendly space? Is it friendly as well to GLBTQ youth? How do you know?
  11. Does your program or organization have a broad commitment to social justice*** ? Does this commitment include the human rights of GLBTQ people?
  12. Do you initiate questions with youth in the program about racism, sexism, homophobia, and other forms of cultural oppression? Do you ask the youth to generate ways to solve, limit, or minimize the problems caused by cultural oppression?

* Adapted and reprinted with permission of Health Initiatives for Youth, San Francisco, California.

** Safe space is a place where any young person can relax and be fully self-expressed, without fear of being made to feel uncomfortable, unwanted, or unsafe on account of biological sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression, race/ethnicity, cultural background, age, or physical and mental ability. It is a place where the rules guard each person's self-respect and strongly encourage everyone to respect others.

*** Social justice means equal treatment and social and economic equal opportunity, irrespective of one's sex, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender identity, religious affiliation, country of origin, physical health status, or age.

 


This publication is part of the Creating Safe Space for GLBTQ Youth: A Toolkit

 
Community Participation Print

Volume 14, No. 3, April 2002

This Transitions is also available in [PDF] format.

Table of Contents

This Transitions focuses on community participation, a movement in the public health field that respects the rights and responsibility of community members—including youth—to diagnose the causes of a community problem and to actively engage in designing, implementing, and evaluating strategies to address the problem. Community participation can be a vital strategy that helps shift the ways in which communities deal with adolescents and their sexual health as community adults partner with young people and with program planners to create appropriate solutions to community problems.

Resources on Community Participation

Norman J. Building Effective Youth-Adult Partnerships. Transitions 2001; volume 14, number 1. [HTML]

World Bank. The World Bank Participation Sourcebook. Washington, DC: The Bank, 1996. [www.worldbank.org/wbi/sourcebook/sbpdf.htm]

Inter-American Development Bank. Resource Book on Participation: Washington, DC: The Bank, [1996?] [www.iadb.org/exr/english/policies/participate/index.htm]

United Nations Development Programme. Empowering People: A Guide to Participation. New York, NY: The Programme, 1998.

Howard-Grabman L et al. The WARMI Project: A Participatory Approach to Improve Maternal and Neonatal Health: An Implementor's Manual. Arlington, VA: John Snow, MotherCare, 1994.

Get Involved! Fight for Your Rights: Protect Yourself
Support Honest, Realistic Sex Education!

In April, Advocates for Youth announced its partnership with the media giant MTV in a yearlong campaign, Fight for Your Rights: Protect Yourself, the first-ever mass mobilization of young people in the United States to fight for their right to responsible, medically accurate sexual health information.

Through this campaign, youth will finally have a way to make their voices heard.

Click here to learn more, to become an activist, to fight for your rights or phone Advocates for Youth's Youth Empowerment Initiatives at 202.419.3420.

Films by and for Teens

Scenarios USA is a program to get teens thinking about their choices and decisions around important issues that affect their lives, such as HIV/AIDS, unwanted pregnancy and violence. Teens, ages 12 to 22, address these issues by writing stories for the Scenarios contest, What's the Real Deal.

Winners get to make their stories into short films in their hometown, working with a professional filmmaker and crew. The finished products are high-quality short films that educators can use to spark discussion on important issues. The films have been shown on MTV, PBS and NBC affiliates, Oxygen, at film festivals and on the Internet as well as on ABC's World News Tonight and NPR's On the Media

Teenagers in New York City and Laredo, Texas, wrote the two most recent films released by Scenarios USA. The New York film, From an Objective Point of View, tells the story of two best friends who make a pact not to have sex without consulting the other and whose pact verges on being broken. The result is an honest look at teenage desire. Written by 16-year-old Janet Aponte, the film was directed by Jim McKay (Our Song) and Hannah Weyer (La Boda) and shot in Brooklyn.

The Laredo Story is adapted from an essay written by a 14-year-old girl who feels pressure regarding "drugs, alcohol, and doing what it takes to fit in." She decides to maintain her individuality and to remain abstinent. The film was written by Samantha Hernandez, directed by Griffin Dunne (Practical Magic and Lisa Picard Is Famous) and shot in the Texas-Mexico border town of Laredo.

To order, contact Scenarios USA, 110 West 18th Street, 6th Floor, New York, NY 10011 or phone 646.230.7677.


Transitions (ISSN 1097-1254) © 2002, is a quarterly publication of Advocates for Youth—Helping young people make safe and responsible decisions about sex. For permission to reprint, contact Transitions' editor at 202.419.3420.

Editor: Sue Alford

This publication is part of the Transitions series.

 
Talking With TV: A Guide to Starting Dialogue With Youth Print

You can help determine what TV teaches children about sexuality, values and other sensitive subjects. This booklet tells you how.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Channel 1: Talking with Teens

Channel 2: TV History

Channel 3: Video 24 Hours A Day

Channel 4: Learning with TV

Channel 5: Viewers' Choice

Channel 6: Talking with TV

Channel 7: Educational TV

Channel 8: Public Access TV

 
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Page 27 of 70
AMPLIFYYOUR VOICE.ORG
a youth-driven community working for change
AMBIENTEJOVEN.ORG
Apoyo para Jóvenes GLBTQ
for Spanish-speaking GLBTQ youth
MYSISTAHS.ORG
by and for young women of color
MORNINGAFTERINFO.ORG
information on emergency birth control for South Carolina residents
YOUTHRESOURCE.ORG
by and for gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth
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