Science-Based Practices in Teen Pregnancy and HIV/STI Prevention: Selected Annotated Bibliography Print

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This bibliography provides a selected list of publications and other resources around science-based practices in preventing teen pregnancy, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). All selected publications and resources are available free on the World Wide Web. Resources are arranged under four headings—1) research summaries related to effective programs, 2) resources on program planning, implementation, and evaluation, 3) Web sites offering resources related to science-based practices, and 4) Listservs announcing new (free) publications. Within these categories, publications and resources are listed in alphabetical order, by publisher or sponsor.#

I. Research Summaries Related to Effective Programs

Advocates for Youth

Alford S. Science and Success, Second Edition: Sex Education and Other Programs that Work to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, HIV & Sexually Transmitted Infections. Washington, DC: Advocates for Youth, 2008. [112 p.]

An exhaustive literature review identified over 160 evaluations of programs. Twenty-six were selected for inclusion in this document. None of the effective programs was abstinence-only. Each of the twenty-six effective programs reduced the incidence of pregnancy or STIs and/or affected two or more of the following behaviors: 1) delaying the initiation of sex; 2) reducing the frequency of sexual intercourse; 3) reducing the number of sexual partners or increasing monogamy; 4) increasing the use, or consistency of use, of effective methods of contraception and/or condoms; and/or 5) reducing the incidence of unprotected sex.

Science and Success includes charts indicating whether the program is school- or community-based, the age and race/ethnicity of youth with whom the program was evaluated, the program's important components, evaluation findings, replication findings, and contact information on where to obtain the program and training to implement it.

Child Trends

Manlove J, Terry-Humen E, Romano Papillo A et al. Background for Community-Level Work on Positive Reproductive Health in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors. Washington, DC: Child Trends, 2001. [63 p.]

This paper reviews more than 150 research studies on sexuality and HIV prevention education. It summarizes the effects of 16 evaluated programs—eight sex education, one abstinence-only-until-marriage, and seven HIV prevention programs. Programs that work to improve adolescent sexual health and behaviors are those that reduce rates of unintended pregnancy and incidence of STIs among teens or that show at least one of the following behavior changes: delaying sexual initiation; reducing the frequency of sexual activity; reducing the number of sexual partners; or increasing the use of condoms and other contraceptives. The paper also includes information on programs that do not work, as well as information on some that have not yet been rigorously evaluated but that show promise.

ETR (Education, Training, and Research Associates)

Resource Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (ReCAPP)

ReCAPP aims to build the capacity of schools, state and local health departments, and youth serving organizations and institutions nationwide to implement science-based, proven approaches to reducing adolescents' risk for pregnancy. ETR offers publications, hosts projects on preventing unintended pregnancy, and provides Web-based consultation, training, research syntheses, materials, and program development. The ReCAPP Web site provides information for health educators and program planners on programs to prevent teen pregnancy. In regard to each highlighted program, the site provides an overview and discussion of the program's features, a description of its theoretical framework, costs, training information, and a summary of evaluation findings. Each program has been evaluated and shown to reduce one or more sexual risk behaviors in at least some groups of youth.

National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy

Kirby D. Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy. Washington, DC: The Campaign, 2001. [185 p.]

Emerging Answers focuses on excellence in evaluation and also identifies characteristics of successful programs to prevent teen pregnancy and HIV/STIs. It highlights components of programs that are effective in encouraging teens to remain abstinent or to use condoms and contraception when they do have sex. None of the programs identified as successful is an abstinence-only-until-marriage program. The study highlights eight programs that have strong evidence of effectiveness—five comprehensive sex education or HIV prevention education programs, two service learning programs, and one intensive, combined sexuality and youth development program. Significantly, the study shows that evaluations consistently disprove claims that providing teens with information about abstinence and contraception sends a 'mixed message.'

Pathfinder International

FOCUS on Young Adults. Advancing Young Adult Reproductive Health: Actions for the Next Decade: End of Program Report. Washington, DC: Pathfinder International, and The Futures Group, 2001.

This report summarizes what the FOCUS on Young Adults Project learned about the reproductive health of adolescents and young adults (ages 10 to 24) throughout the developing world. A chart provides details on the evaluations and findings regarding 39 programs—school-based sex education as well as community-based, mass media, and workplace programs.

Sociometrics Corporation

Program Archive on Sexuality, Health, and Adolescence (PASHA)

PASHA assembles programs to address prevention in three key, public health issues: teen pregnancy, HIV, and substance abuse. Specifically, PASHA is a collection of promising teen pregnancy and HIV/STI prevention programs that have demonstrated at least some effectiveness in reducing sexual risk behaviors among teens. PASHA staff has developed packages for each program. Each package includes a complete set of program materials: training manual, curriculum, guidebook, workbooks, video(s), and user's guide to implementation.

Urban Institute

Sonenstein FL, Stewart K, Duberstein Lindberg L et al. Involving Males in Preventing Teen Pregnancy: A Guide for Program Planners. Washington, DC: The Institute, 1997. [173 p.]

This publication identifies 24 promising pregnancy prevention programs for young men and provides insights on designing programs to attract and retain young men. All featured programs focus on males' sexuality, contraceptive use, reproduction, and parenting. For each program, the book discusses: 1) barriers to recruiting and serving young men; 2) lessons learned in the course of two or more years of the program's operation; and 3) activities, staffing needs, and target population.

II. Program Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation Resources

Advocates for Youth

Brindis C and Davis L. Communities Responding to the Challenge of Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention, five volumes. Washington, DC: Advocates, 1998. [over 500 pages in five volumes]

The series includes: 1) Mobilizing for Action; 2) Building Strong Foundations and Ensuring the Future; 3) Designing Effective Family Life Education Programs; 4) Improving Contraceptive Access for Teens; and 5) Linking Pregnancy Prevention to Youth Development. The series offers research and guidance on adolescent sex education and pregnancy prevention programs. Volumes explore: 1) building a coordinated effort to prevent teen pregnancy; 2) conducting pregnancy prevention campaigns; 3) creating, replicating, and/or adapting an effective sex education program; 4) identifying and addressing barriers to young people's access to contraception; 5) the benefits of linking youth development and sex education and contraceptive access programs; 6) assessing the needs and assets of the community's youth; 7) developing a strong funding base for programs; and 8) planning for evaluation.

National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy

Get Organized: A Guide to Preventing Teen Pregnancy. Washington, DC: The Campaign, 1999.

This three-volume publication is a practical tool kit for taking community-wide action to prevent teen pregnancy. The series covers a lot of ground—from strategies for collecting basic data and reaching out to religious leaders to practical advice about how to raise money and conduct evaluation. The series offers easy-to-read boxes, helpful checklists, and references and resources.

NOAPPP/Johnson and Johnson's Partnership

NOAPPP. Evaluation Readiness Tool. Washington, DC: NOAPPP.
Available free online only to members of NOAPPP

Program evaluation has been a priority for the National Organization on Adolescent Pregnancy, Parenting and Prevention (NOAPPP) since it partnered with Johnson and Johnson on the National Urban Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Project (NUAPPP) in 1996. NOAPPP published The Evaluation Readiness Tool for program managers, and with it, offers customized technical assistance in program evaluation.

Pathfinder International

FOCUS on Young Adults. A Guide to Monitoring and Evaluating Adolescent Reproductive Health Programs. Washington, DC: Author, 2000. [285 pages in Part I; 179 pages in Part II.] [Part I] [Part II]

This tool provides step-by-step guidance on the "how-to" of monitoring and evaluating reproductive and sexual health programs. It also offers checklists, tally sheets, reporting and inventory forms, guides for counseling and clinical procedures, guides for interviewing young clients and the community's youth and adults, and guides for conducting focus groups and for assessing coalitions' effectiveness.

Sociometrics Corporation

Sedivy V. Evaluation Readiness Assessment Guide: Is Your Program Ready to Evaluate Its Effectiveness? [Publication # 22] Los Altos, CA: Sociometrics.

This comprehensive, easy-to-use guide assists program planners to determine if an intervention is ready for evaluation. The guide also provides step-by-step information on how to collect valuable information related to the strength of the program model, staff resources, program philosophy, and implementation of program components. The guide offers a detailed outline for operational planning, using the data to identify program areas that need to be strengthened.

Sociometrics Corporation

Prevention Minimum Evaluation Data Set (PMEDS). Los Altos, CA: Sociometrics.

This publication provides a core, primary questionnaire (with optional supplementary modules) that will be useful for evaluating any teen pregnancy or HIV/STI prevention program. The items are also available on PC diskette so that program planners can develop their own questionnaires. A second, abridged publication—PMEDS JR, focusing on programs that emphasize abstinence—may be suitable for evaluating programs for pre-teens and very young teens.

III. Online Resources Related to Science Based Practices

Advocates for Youth

Online publications available in full text by topic area

Advocates for Youth's Web site offers hundreds of full-text publications on subjects including but not limited to: 1) adolescent sexual behavior, sexual health, and contraceptive use; 2) cultural competency, including youth-friendly services; 3) emergency contraception; 4) European approaches; 5) gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (GLBTQ) youth; 6) parent-child communication; 7) preventing teen pregnancy and HIV/STIs; 8) sex education; 9) youth empowerment, peer education, and youth-adult partnerships in programs' design and operation; 10) youth in developing nations; and 11) youth of color.

Advocates for Youth

Online library

Advocates' library contains a unique and nearly comprehensive collection of public health materials on adolescents' reproductive and sexual health. Advocates' online library includes abstracts of over 10,000 peer-reviewed journal articles and government reports as well as records for over 3,000 monographs. Many of the papers and monographs constitute gray literature*, not easily available through academic or public libraries. Users can search Advocates' online library by author, co-author, title, date, or subject, and can use "Search all fields" to find words in the contents, subject headings, title, or abstract fields. The library also offers links to important and reliable sources of research and government data.

American Social Health Association

The American Social Health Association (ASHA) is a resource for information and data about STIs, including HIV, in the United States. The Web site offers information on transmission, symptoms, treatment, and outcomes for STIs including chancroid, chlamydia, crabs, genital herpes, genital warts (human papillomavirus), gonorrhea, hepatitis, scabies, syphilis, and vaginitis. The site also links to the hotlines of the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention.

American Social Health Association

National STD Action Plan

ASHA leads the National STD Action Plan, a collaboration among private, public, and nonprofit sectors, to provide strategic leadership in the fight against STIs by breaking society's silence regarding STIs. The Plan aims to educate: 1) the general public, which understands little about STIs and harbors many myths and misconceptions about STIs; 2) patients, who may feel fear, shame, or stigma related to STIs; 3) health care providers, who may feel inadequately prepared or uncomfortable discussing STIs with patients; and 4) policy makers, who are charged with making decisions about funding and service delivery, yet often are reluctant to address this controversial issue

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

STDs 101

This Web page, from the Division of Sexually Transmitted Diseases at the CDC, provides information on sexually transmitted infections, including bacterial vaginosis, chlamydia, genital herpes, genital warts (human papillomavirus or HPV), gonorrhea, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), syphilis, and trichomoniasis. Each STI's fact sheet discusses how the disease is transmitted, treated, and prevented as well as how prevalent it is in the United States. The Web page also gives access to a fact sheet on male latex condoms' effectiveness in preventing STIs, including HIV.

Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation

Kaiser Daily HIV/AIDS Report

Kaiser Daily Reproductive Health Report
To sign up to receive the Daily Report(s) by e-mail, visit
State health facts

The daily reports provide summaries and links to news in the fields of HIV and AIDS, and reproductive health. Published Monday through Friday (except holidays), the reports keep readers abreast of news, editorials, and some newly published scientific studies. The site offers a wealth of information (current and archived) about adolescent sexual health in the United States as well as state health facts online.

Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Library

The MCH Library collects materials on the history of maternal and child health in the United States, policy papers, reports, conference proceedings, manuals, survey instruments, guidelines, and curricula. Publications come from federal and state agencies, grantees of federal and state agencies, and professional and volunteer organizations. The library also offers bibliographies, including one on adolescent pregnancy prevention.

National Adolescent Health Information Center

The National Adolescent Health Information Center is based within the Division of Adolescent Medicine at the University of California at San Francisco. It has a mission to improve adolescents' health by serving as a national resource for adolescent health information and research and by working to promote the integration, synethesis, coordination, and dissemination of information on adolescent health. Reports and synetheses of health information are available full-text on the site.

National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy

The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy offers a Web site that provides access to research and information on teen pregnancy and teen births. Its "Across America" section presents state-by-state statistics on demographics, teen pregnancy, and risk behaviors as well as trend data and summaries of teen pregnancy prevention programs. The Web site provides research and polling data, resources, special sections and links for teens, and other publications, including video and audio collections and materials in Spanish.

National Organization on Adolescent Pregnancy, Parenting and Prevention (NOAPPP)

NOAPPP's Electronic Clearinghouse on Adolescent Health offers a searchable database of materials on teen pregnancy and prevention, HIV/ STI prevention, the children of teen parents, involving families in promoting adolescents' sexual health, involving young men in pregnancy prevention, sex education, teen parents, violence and teen pregnancy, and youth development. NOAPPP's Web site also offers policy statements, access to and membership in the NOAPPP Network, and information on annual conferences, state coalitions, and networking efforts.

Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States

SIECUS is a national, nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting sexual health for people of all ages. Its Web site provides information on state and local policies, sex education programs, effective curricula for teen pregnancy and HIV/STI prevention, and guidelines for effective sex education. SIECUS offers SHOP Talk, a free biweekly electronic newsletter for sex educators and health workers.

IV. Listservs that Announce New (Free) Publications

Alan Guttmacher Institute

Census Bureau

Current Population Reports (especially P-20, P-23, P-60, and P-70) and Statistical Abstract of the United States

Centers for Disease Control & Prevention

  1. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report
  2. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR)
  3. National Vital Statistics Reports (Birth Publications List)

Child Trends

Contraception Online

Contraception Report

Kaiser Family Foundation

Population Reference Bureau

Population Bulletin

Staff can sign up online to receive regular e-mail alerts to the contents of many journals, such as American Journal of Public Health, Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine, Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, JAMA, Journal of Adolescent Health, Sex Education, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Youth & Society, and other journals from professional associations and commercial publishers. Useful articles in these and other journals are usually available full-text online, sometimes for free, more often for a fee.

# To recommend additional resources for later editions of this document, please //', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', '); document.write('send an e-mail to Advocates for Youth', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', '); //]]>.

* Published by private agencies, government departments, interagency task forces, international agencies, or national and state nonprofit organizations, etc.

Written by Meg Earls, Ammie Feijoo, Tamarah Moss, Laura Davis, and Sue Alford, 2004

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